# Planar Diagrams

The `PD` notation

In the "Planar Diagrams" (`PD`) presentation we present every knot or link diagram by labeling its edges (with natural numbers, 1,...,n, and with increasing labels as we go around each component) and by a list crossings presented as symbols ${\displaystyle X_{ijkl}}$ where ${\displaystyle i}$, ${\displaystyle j}$, ${\displaystyle k}$ and ${\displaystyle l}$ are the labels of the edges around that crossing, starting from the incoming lower edge and proceeding counterclockwise. Thus for example, the `PD` presentation of the knot above is:

${\displaystyle X_{1928}X_{3,10,4,11}X_{5362}X_{7,1,8,12}X_{9,4,10,5}X_{11,7,12,6}.}$

(This of course is the Miller Institute knot, the mirror image of the knot 6_2)

(For In[1] see Setup)

 In[2]:= ?PD PD[v1, v2, ...] represents a planar diagram whose vertices are v1, v2, .... PD also acts as a "type caster", so for example, PD[K] where K is a named knot (or link) returns the PD presentation of that knot.
 In[3]:= PD::about The GaussCode to PD conversion was written by Siddarth Sankaran at the University of Toronto in the summer of 2005.
 In[4]:= ?X X[i,j,k,l] represents a crossing between the edges labeled i, j, k and l starting from the incoming lower strand i and going counterclockwise through j, k and l. The (sometimes ambiguous) orientation of the upper strand is determined by the ordering of {j,l}.

Thus, for example, let us compute the determinant of the above knot:

 `In[5]:=` ```K = PD[ X[1,9,2,8], X[3,10,4,11], X[5,3,6,2], X[7,1,8,12], X[9,4,10,5], X[11,7,12,6] ];```
 `In[6]:=` `Alexander[K][-1]` `Out[6]=` `-11`

#### Some further details

 In[7]:= ?Xp Xp[i,j,k,l] represents a positive (right handed) crossing between the edges labeled i, j, k and l starting from the incoming lower strand i and going counter clockwise through j, k and l. The upper strand is therefore oriented from l to j regardless of the ordering of {j,l}. Presently Xp is only lightly supported.
 In[8]:= ?Xm Xm[i,j,k,l] represents a negative (left handed) crossing between the edges labeled i, j, k and l starting from the incoming lower strand i and going counter clockwise through j, k and l. The upper strand is therefore oriented from j to l regardless of the ordering of {j,l}. Presently Xm is only lightly supported.
 In[9]:= ?P P[i,j] represents a bivalent vertex whose adjacent edges are i and j (i.e., a "Point" between the segment i and the segment j). Presently P is only lightly supported.

For example, we could add an extra "point" on the Miller Institute knot, splitting edge 12 into two pieces, labeled 12 and 13:

 `In[10]:=` ```K1 = PD[ X[1,9,2,8], X[3,10,4,11], X[5,3,6,2], X[7,1,8,13], X[9,4,10,5], X[11,7,12,6], P[12,13] ];```

At the moment, many of our routines do not know to ignore such "extra points". But some do:

 `In[11]:=` `Jones[K][q] == Jones[K1][q]` `Out[11]=` `True`
 In[12]:= ?Loop Loop[i] represents a crossingsless loop labeled i.

Hence we can verify that the A2 invariant of the unknot is ${\displaystyle q^{-2}+1+q^{2}}$:

 `In[13]:=` `A2Invariant[Loop[1]][q]` `Out[13]=` ``` -2 2 1 + q + q```